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Dr Andy Bushby

BSc, PhD

Reader in Materials

Department School of Engineering and Materials Science
 Engineering 335, Mile End
Telephone +44 (0)20 7882 7100
Email a.j.bushby@qmul.ac.uk
Homepage http://www.sems.qmul.ac.uk/a.j.bushby

Research Keywords

Micro-mechanics, Nanoindentation, Nano-structured materials, Biological materials, Electron microscopy

Research Interests

Dr Bushby’s research is centred on the micro- and nano-mechanics of materials and structures. He is a leading expert in the technique of nanoindentation for small-scale mechanical property measurement and contributes to ISO Standards working groups for instrumented indentation. Major research themes include the development of methods using spherical indenters, electromechanical properties of ferroelectric thin films, visco-elastic and composites materials, structure-properties relationships in calcified biological tissues and nano-structured crystalline materials.  Fundamental research has focused on the origin of size effects in mechanical properties and has led to new understanding of the strength of nano-structured materials. A long term goal is to exploit the size effect in novel high-strength, lightweight materials through ‘length-scale engineering’ of their microstructure.  Dr Bushby is also the creator and director of Queen Mary’s NanoVision Centre for advanced microscopy. The Centre encourages overlap between different high-resolution microscopy techniques and between scientists from different disciplines. He has developed ‘volume electron microscopy’ techniques for 3D imaging of biological tissues in collaboration with leading biological imaging groups in the UK.

Key Publications

Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2013). The scaling exponent in the size effect of small scale plastic deformation. International Journal of Plasticity  vol. 40, 152-162. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.08.002

Bushby AJ, Roberts SG and Hardie CD (2012). Nanoindentation investigation of ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys using spherical indenters. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 27, (1) 85-90. 10.1557/jmr.2011.304

Bushby AJ, P'Ng KMY, Young RD, Pinali C, Knupp C and Quantock AJ (2011). Imaging three-dimensional tissue architectures by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. Nature Protocols  vol. 6, (6) 845-858. 10.1038/nprot.2011.332

Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2003). Nanomechanical properties and mineral concentration in articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. J Anat  vol. 203, (2) 191-202. 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00193.x

2017

Shuturminska K, Tarakina NV, Azevedo HS, Bushby AJ, Mata A, Anderson P and Al-Jawad M (2017). Elastin-Like Protein, with Statherin Derived Peptide, Controls Fluorapatite Formation and Morphology. Front Physiol  vol. 8, 368-368. 10.3389/fphys.2017.00368

Ashrafi K, Tang Y, Britton H, Domenge O, Blino D, Bushby AJ, Shuturminska K, den Hartog M, Radaelli A, Negussie AH, Mikhail AS, Woods DL, Krishnasamy V, Levy EB, Wood BJ, Willis SL, Dreher MR and Lewis AL (2017). Characterization of a novel intrinsically radiopaque Drug-eluting Bead for image-guided therapy: DC Bead LUMI? Journal of Controlled Release  10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.02.001

2016

CATTELL MJ, Theocharopoulos A, Bushby AJ, P¿ng KMY, Tanner E and wilson RW (2016). Interfacial modulus mapping of layered dental ceramics using nanoindentation., Editors: Kim SH. Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics  10.4047/jap.2016.8.6.479

Gao H, Wen D, Tarakina NV, Liang J, Bushby AJ and Sukhorukov GB (2016). Bifunctional ultraviolet/ultrasound responsive composite TiO2/polyelectrolyte microcapsules. Nanoscale  vol. 8, (9) 5170-5180. 10.1039/c5nr06666b

2015

Hardie CD, Roberts SG and Bushby AJ (2015). Understanding the effects of ion irradiation using nanoindentation techniques. Journal of Nuclear Materials  vol. 462, 391-401. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.11.066

Armstrong DEJ, Hardie CD, Gibson JSKL, Bushby AJ, Edmondson PD and Roberts SG (2015). Small-scale characterisation of irradiated nuclear materials: Part II nanoindentation and micro-cantilever testing of ion irradiated nuclear materials. Journal of Nuclear Materials  vol. 462, 374-381. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.01.053

Dong D, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2015). Plasticity and thermal recovery of thin copper wires in torsion. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 95, (16-18) 1739-1750. 10.1080/14786435.2014.979262

2014

Dong D, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2014). Plasticity and thermal recovery of thin copper wires in torsion. Taylor and Francis Ltd.  Philosophical Magazine  10.1080/14786435.2014.979262

Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2014). Grain size dependence of the strength of metals: The Hall-Petch effect does not scale as the inverse square root of grain size. International Journal of Plasticity  vol. 53, 56-65. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2013.07.004

Young RD, Knupp C, Pinali C, Png KMY, Ralphs JR, Bushby AJ, Starborg T, Kadler KE and Quantock AJ (2014). Three-dimensional aspects of matrix assembly by cells in the developing cornea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  vol. 111, (2) 687-692. 10.1073/pnas.1313561110

2013

Novak P, Gorelik J, Vivekananda U, Shevchuk AI, Ermolyuk YS, Bailey RJ, Bushby AJ, Moss GWJ, Rusakov DA, Klenerman D, Kullmann DM, Volynski KE and Korchev YE (2013). Nanoscale-targeted patch-clamp recordings of functional presynaptic ion channels. Neuron  vol. 79, (6) 1067-1077. 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.07.012

Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2013). The scaling exponent in the size effect of small scale plastic deformation. International Journal of Plasticity  vol. 40, 152-162. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.08.002

Dunstan DJ and BUSHBY AJ (2013). The scaling exponent in the size effect of small scale plastic deformation. Elsevier  International Journal of Plasticity  vol. Volume 40, 152-162. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.08.002

2012

Dunstan DJ, Gallé JU, Hou XD, Png KMY, Bushby AJ, Yang B and Kiener D (2012). Yield and plastic flow of soft metals in small volumes loaded in tension and flexure. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 92, (25-27) 3199-3215. 10.1080/14786435.2012.685967

Hardie CD, Roberts SG and Bushby AJ (2012). Mechanical behavior of ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys investigated by spherical indentation. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 1424, 1-6. 10.1557/opl.2012.231

Bushby AJ, Feuvrier J, Dong DV and Dunstan DJ (2012). Testing the limits of small scale plasticity with thin wires in torsion. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 1424, 61-65. 10.1557/opl.2012.104

Bushby AJ, Mariggi G, Armer HEJ and Collinson LM (2012). Correlative Light and Volume Electron Microscopy: Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy to Image Transient Events in Model Organisms. Methods in Cell Biology  vol. 111, 357-382. 10.1016/B978-0-12-416026-2.00018-2

Crumpton-Taylor M, Grandison S, Png KMY, Bushby AJ and Smith AM (2012). Control of starch granule numbers in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Plant Physiology  vol. 158, (2) 905-916. 10.1104/pp.111.186957

Bushby AJ, Roberts SG and Hardie CD (2012). Nanoindentation investigation of ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys using spherical indenters. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 27, (1) 85-90. 10.1557/jmr.2011.304

Dunstan DJ, Thomas AJ, de Lavau I, Jardin JJ and Bushby AJ (2012). New experimental test of strain-gradient plasticity theory: metal foil sandwich structures in flexure. Philosophical Magazine Letters  vol. 92, (7) 308-313. 10.1080/09500839.2012.669055

2011

Chima-Okereke C, Roberts WL, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2011). The elastic properties of ferroelectric thin films measured using nanoindentation. Springer Series in Materials Science  vol. 140, (1) 543-572.

Dunstan DJ, Gallé JU, Ehrler B, Schmitt NJ, Zhu TT, Hou XD, P'ng KMY, Gannaway G and Bushby AJ (2011). Micromechanical testing with microstrain resolution. Rev Sci Instrum  vol. 82, (9) 10.1063/1.3636074

Pavlov AM, Sapelkin AV, Huang X, P apos ng KMY, Bushby AJ, Sukhorukov GB and Skirtach AG (2011). Neuron Cells Uptake of Polymeric Microcapsules and Subsequent Intracellular Release. Macromolecular Bioscience  vol. 11, (6) 848-854. 10.1002/mabi.201000494

Bushby AJ, P'Ng KMY, Young RD, Pinali C, Knupp C and Quantock AJ (2011). Imaging three-dimensional tissue architectures by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. Nature Protocols  vol. 6, (6) 845-858. 10.1038/nprot.2011.332

Mneimne M, Hill RG, Bushby AJ and Brauer DS (2011). High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses. Acta Biomater  vol. 7, (4) 1827-1834. 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.11.037

Boyde A, Riggs CM, Bushby AJ, McDermott B, Pinchbeck GL and Clegg PD (2011). Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. European Cells and Materials  vol. 21, 470-478.

Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2011). Size effects in yield and plasticity under uniaxial and non-uniform loading: experiment and theory. Philos Mag  vol. 91, (7-9) 1037-1049. 10.1080/14786435.2010.493533

2010

Hou XD, Bushby AJ and Jennett NM (2010). Direct measurement of surface shape for validation of indentation deformation and plasticity length-scale effects: A comparison of methods. Measurement Science and Technology  vol. 21, (11) 10.1088/0957-0233/21/11/115105

Doube M, Firth EC, Boyde A and Bushby AJ (2010). Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site. European Cells and Materials  vol. 19, 242-251.

2009

Armer HEJ, Mariggi G, Png KMY, Genoud C, Monteith AG, Bushby AJ, Gerhardt H and Collison LM (2009). Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy. Plos One  vol. 4, (11) 10.1371/journal.pone.0007716

Eidelman N, Boyde A, Bushby AJ, Howell PGT, Sun J, Newbury DE, Miller FW, Robey PG and Rider LG (2009). Microstructure and mineral composition of dystrophic calcification associated with the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Research and Therapy  vol. 11, (5) 10.1186/ar2841

Dunstan DJ, Ehrler B, Bossis R, Joly S, P'ng KMY and Bushby AJ (2009). Elastic Limit and Strain Hardening of Thin Wires in Torsion. Phys Rev Lett  vol. 103, (15) 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.155501

Ehrler B, Dunstan DJ, Zhu TT, Hou XD, P'ng KMY and Bushby AJ (2009). The strength of thin films, small structures and materials under localised stresses. Thin Solid Films  vol. 517, (13) 3781-3783. 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.12.053

Bushby AJ, Zhu TT and Dunstan DJ (2009). Slip distance model for the indentation size effect at the initiation of plasticity in ceramics and metals. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 24, (3) 966-972. 10.1557/JMR.2009.0104

2008

Zhu TT, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Materials mechanical size effects: a review. Mater Technol  vol. 23, (4) 193-209. 10.1179/175355508X376843

Wang W, Bushby AJ and Barber AH (2008). Nanomechanical thermal analysis of electrospun polymer fibers. Appl Phys Lett  vol. 93, (20) 10.1063/1.3033222

Oyen ML, Ferguson VL, Bembey AK, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2008). Composite bounds on the elastic modulus of bone. Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 41, (11) 2585-2588. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.05.018

Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ, Firth EC, Howell PGT and Boyde A (2008). Exercise does not affect stiffness and mineralisation of third metacarpal condylar subarticular calcified tissues in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses. European Cells and Materials  vol. 16, 40-46.

Zhu TT, Hou XD, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Indentation size effect at the initiation of plasticity for ceramics and metals. Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics  vol. 41, (7) 10.1088/0022-3727/41/7/074004

Zhu TT, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Size effect in the initiation of plasticity for ceramics in nanoindentation. J Mech Phys Solids  vol. 56, (4) 1170-1185. 10.1016/j.jmps.2007.10.003

Ehrler B, Hou XD, Zhu TT, Png KMY, Walker CJ, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Grain size and sample size interact to determine strength in a soft metal. Philos Mag  vol. 88, (25) 3043-3050. 10.1080/14786430802392548

2007

Koval V, Reece MJ and Bushby AJ (2007). Enhanced ferroelectric loop asymmetry of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 101, (2) 10.1063/1.2430699

Dunstan DJ, P'ng KMY, Zhu TT, Hou XD, Walker CJ and Bushby AJ (2007). Strength of strained quantum wells and other small scale structures. Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid State Physics  vol. 244, (1) 93-99. 10.1002/pssb.200672546

Oyen ML and Bushby AJ (2007). Viscoelastic effects in small-scale indentation of biological materials. Int J Surf Sci Eng  vol. 1, (2-3) 180-197. 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2007.015024

2006

Zhu TT, Hou XD, Walker CJ, P'ng KMY, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2006). Size effect in the initiation of plasticity for ceramics in nanoscale contact loading. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 976, 1-6.

Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2006). Effect of water on mechanical properties of mineralized tissue composites. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 975, 147-152.

Oyen ML, Bembey AK and Bushby AJ (2006). Poroelastic indentation analysis for hydrated biological tissues. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 975, 122-127.

P'ng KMY, Hou XD, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2006). Strength of coherently strained nanolayers under high temperature nanoindentation. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 977, 103-108.

Hou XD, Zhu TT, Jennett NM and Bushby AJ (2006). The identation size effect and Hall-Petch behaviour of annealed polycrystalline copper. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 976, 61-66.

Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2006). Viscoelastic properties of bone as a function of hydration state determined by nanoindentation. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 86, (33-35 SPEC. ISSUE) 5691-5703. 10.1080/14786430600660864

Oyen ML, Bushby AJ, Mann A and Ortiz C (2006). Mechanics of biological and biomimetic materials at small length-scales. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (8) 1869-1870. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0264

Bembey AK, Bushby AJ, Boyde A, Ferguson VL and Oyen ML (2006). Hydration effects on the micro-mechanical properties of bone. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (8) 1962-1968. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0237

Chima-Okereke C, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ, Whatmore RW and Zhang Q (2006). Experimental, analytical, and finite element analyses of nanoindentation of multilayer PZT/Pt/SiO2 thin film systems on silicon wafers. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (2) 409-419. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0047

2005

P'Ng KMY, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2005). Strength of coherently strained layered superlattices. Philos Mag  vol. 85, (36) 4429-4444. 10.1080/14786430500313812

Ntim MM, Bembey AK, Ferguson VL and Bushby AJ (2005). Hydration effects on the viscoelastic properties of collagen. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 898, 39-43.

Ferguson VL, Oyen ML, Boyde A and Bushby AJ (2005). Mineralization and nanomechanical properties in Articular Calcified Cartilage (ACC). Proceedings of The 2005 Summer Bioengineering Conference  vol. 2005, 960-961.

Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2005). Nanoindentation measurements of bone viscoelasticity as a function of hydration state. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 898, 104-109.

Lloyd SJ, P'Ng KMY, Clegg WJ, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2005). Effect of coherency strain on the deformation of InxGa1-xAs superlattices under nanoindentation and bending. Philos Mag  vol. 85, (22) 2469-2490. 10.1080/14786430500070909

Moreau P, Raulic M, P'ng KMY, Gannaway G, Anderson P, Gillin WP, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2005). Measurement of the size effect in the yield strength of nickel foils. Phil Mag Lett  vol. 85, (7) 339-343. 10.1080/09500830500071564

Koval V, Reece MJ and Bushby AJ (2005). Ferroelectric/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 97, (7) 10.1063/1.1870092

2004

Towler MR, Twomey E, Bushby AJ, Crowley CM, Doyle J and Hampshire S (2004). The effect of ultrasonic setting on the mechanical properties of glass polyalkenoate cements. Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress 

Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2004). Theory of deformation in small volumes of material. P Roy Soc Lond a Mat  vol. 460, (2050) 2781-2796. 10.1098/rspa.2004.1306

Algueró M, Calzada ML, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2004). Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of (Pb, Ca)TiO3 thin films under spherical indentation. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 85, (11) 2023-2025. 10.1063/1.1787594

Bushby AJ, Ferguson VL and Boyde A (2004). Nanoindentation of bone: Comparison of specimens tested in liquid and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate (vol 19, pg 249, 2004). J Mater Res  vol. 19, (5) 1581-1581. 10.1557/JMR.2004.0211

Bushby AJ, Ferguson VL and Boyde A (2004). Nanoindentation of bone: Comparison of specimens tested in liquid and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. J Mater Res  vol. 19, (1) 249-259. 10.1557/jmr.2004.19.1.249

Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2004). Plasticity size effects in nanoindentation. J Mater Res  vol. 19, (1) 137-142. 10.1557/JMR.2004.0016

2003

Dunstan D, BUSHBY AJ and Gillin W (2003). III-V semiconductors solve mechanical riddle. III-Vs Review  vol. 16, (9) 39-41. 10.1016/S0961-1290(03)00084-X

Jayaweera NB, Downes JR, Frogley MD, Hopkinson M, Bushby AJ, Kidd P, Kelly A and Dunstan DJ (2003). The onset of plasticity in nanoscale contact loading. P Roy Soc Lond a Mat  vol. 459, (2036) 2049-2068. 10.1098/rspa.2002.1093

Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2003). Nanomechanical properties and mineral concentration in articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. J Anat  vol. 203, (2) 191-202. 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00193.x

BUSHBY AJ (2003). Materials Failure. Navigating The Materials World: a Guide to Understanding Materials Behavior , Editors: Baillie C and Vanasupa L. Academic Press 

2002

Algueró M, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ and Seifert A (2002). Anelastic deformation of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by non-180? ferroelectric domain wall movements during nanoindentation. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 81, (3) 421-423. 10.1063/1.1491291

Ferguson VL, Partap S, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2002). Thickness of articular calcified cartilage in normal and osteoarthritic human femoral heads. J Bone Miner Res  vol. 17, (5) 952-952.

Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2002). Modulus and mineralisation of articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in osteoarthritis via nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging. J Bone Miner Res  vol. 17, (5) 945-945.

2001

Alguero M, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ, Poyato R, Ricote J, Calzada ML and Pardo L (2001). Stress-induced depolarization of (Pb, La)TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by nanoindentation. Appl Phys Lett  vol. 79, (23) 3830-3832. 10.1063/1.1418258

Algueró M, Bushby AJ, Hvizdos P, Reece MJ, Whatmore RW and Zhang Q (2001). Mechanical and electromechanical properties of PZT sol-gel thin films measured by nanoindentation. Integrated Ferroelectrics  vol. 41, (1-4) 53-62. 10.1080/10584580108012807

Algueró M, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2001). Measurement of electrical charge during nanoindentation of ferroelectric thin films. Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings  vol. 657,

Towler MR, Bushby AJ, Billington RW and Hill RG (2001). A preliminary comparison of the mechanical properties of chemically cured and ultrasonically cured glass ionomer cements, using nano-indentation techniques. Biomaterials  vol. 22, (11) 1401-1406. 10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00297-0

Algueró M, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2001). Direct measurement of mechanical properties of (Pb,La)TiO3 ferroelectric thin films using nanoindentation techniques. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 16, (4) 993-1002. 10.1557/JMR.2001.0140

BUSHBY AJ (2001). Nano-indentation using spherical indenters. Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation  vol. 17, (4) 213-234.

1999

Alguero M, Bushby AJ, Cheng BL, Guiu F, Reece MJ, Calzada ML and Pardo L (1999). The characterisation of ferroelectric thin films using nanoindentation. Bol Soc Esp Ceram V  vol. 38, (5) 446-450.

Jayaweera NB, Bushby AJ, Kidd P, Kelly A and Dunstan DJ (1999). Control of plasticity with coherency strain. Phil Mag Lett  vol. 79, (6) 343-349. 10.1080/095008399177183

1997

Healy J, Bushby AJ, Mai YW and Mukhopadhyay AK (1997). Cyclic fatigue of long and short cracks in alumina. J Mater Sci  vol. 32, (3) 741-747. 10.1023/A:1018556322981

1996

Wang M, Li M, Bushby AJ, Guiu F, Reece MJ and Sammur MFR (1996). High-temperature Fatigue of a Gas-Pressure-Sintered Silicon Nitride. Journal of The European Ceramic Society  vol. 16, (9) 1009-1020. 10.1016/0955-2219(96)00020-9

1994

Bushby A, Guiu F, Knowles J and Reece MJ (1994). Cycle fatigue of silicon nitride at 1000 ?C. Key Engineering Materials  vol. 89-91, 673-677.

TBC

TBC

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