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Materials Research Institute

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Dr Bob C. Schroeder

MRI Academic Fellow

Department School of Biological and Chemical Sciences
 G.O. Jones 305
Telephone +44 (0)20 7882 5582

Research Interests

The Schroeder Research Group is a synthetic chemistry group developing new and innovative organic (semi)conducting materials for various energy and healthcare applications. We take an interdisciplinary approach to problem solving and work closely together with colleagues in physics, materials science and engineering to develop creative new technologies. Current research efforts in the lab focus on the development of new conducting polymers for thermoelectric applications, as well as on the exploitation of supramolecular interactions in pi-conjugated materials for self-assembly and molecular recognition.


Utzat H, Dimitroy SD, Wheeler S, Collado-Fregoso E, Tuladhar PS, Schroeder BC, McCulloch I and Durrant JR (2017). Charge-Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition. Journal of Physical Chemistry C  vol. 121, (18) 9790-9801. 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02898

Su H-L, Sredojevic DN, Bronstein H, Marks TJ, Schroeder BC and Al-Hashimi M (2017). Bithiazole: An Intriguing Electron-Deficient Building for Plastic Electronic Applications. Macromol Rapid Commun  10.1002/marc.201600610

Cowen LM, Atoyo J, Carnie MJ, Baran D and Schroeder BC (2017). Review?Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation. Ecs Journal of Solid State Science and Technology  vol. 6, (3) N3080-N3088. 10.1149/2.0121703jss

Kumar N, Zoladek-Lemanczyk A, Guilbert AAY, Su W, Tuladhar SM, Kirchartz T, Schroeder BC, McCulloch I, Nelson J, Roy D and Castro FA (2017). Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale. Nanoscale  10.1039/c6nr09057e

Xu J, Wang S, Wang G-JN, Zhu C, Luo S, Jin L, Gu X, Chen S, Feig VR, To JWF, Rondeau-Gagné S, Park J, Schroeder BC, Lu C, Oh JY, Wang Y, Kim Y-H, Yan H, Sinclair R and Zhou D (2017). Highly stretchable polymer semiconductor films through the nanoconfinement effect. Science  vol. 355, (6320) 59-64. 10.1126/science.aah4496

Gu X, Zhou Y, Gu K, Kurosawa T, Guo Y, Li Y, Lin H, Schroeder BC, Yan H, Molina-Lopez F, Tassone CJ, Wang C, Mannsfeld SCB, Yan H, Zhao D, Toney MF and Bao Z (2017). Roll-to-Roll Printed Large-Area All-Polymer Solar Cells with 5% Efficiency Based on a Low Crystallinity Conjugated Polymer Blend. Advanced Energy Materials  10.1002/aenm.201602742


Gu X, Yan H, Kurosawa T, Schroeder BC, Gu KL, Zhou Y, To JWF, Oosterhout SD, Savikhin V, Molina-Lopez F, Tassone CJ, Mannsfeld SCB, Wang C, Toney MF and Bao Z (2016). Comparison of the Morphology Development of Polymer?Fullerene and Polymer?Polymer Solar Cells during Solution-Shearing Blade Coating. Advanced Energy Materials  vol. 6, (22) 10.1002/aenm.201601225

Wang GJN, Shaw L, Xu J, Kurosawa T, Schroeder BC, Oh JY, Benight SJ and Bao Z (2016). Inducing Elasticity through Oligo-Siloxane Crosslinks for Intrinsically Stretchable Semiconducting Polymers. Advanced Functional Materials  vol. 26, (40) 7254-7262. 10.1002/adfm.201602603

Schroeder BC, Chiu YC, Gu X, Zhou Y, Xu J, Lopez J, Lu C, Toney MF and Bao Z (2016). Non-Conjugated Flexible Linkers in Semiconducting Polymers: A Pathway to Improved Processability without Compromising Device Performance. Advanced Electronic Materials  vol. 2, (7) 10.1002/aelm.201600104

Kassar T, Güldal NS, Berlinghof M, Ameri T, Kratzer A, Schroeder BC, Destri GL, Hirsch A, Heeney M, McCulloch I, Brabec CJ and Unruh T (2016). Real-Time Investigation of Intercalation and Structure Evolution in Printed Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Thin Films. Advanced Energy Materials  vol. 6, (5) 10.1002/aenm.201502025

Dimitrov SD, Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Bronstein H, Fei Z, McCulloch I, Heeney M and Durrant JR (2016). Singlet exciton lifetimes in conjugated polymer films for organic solar cells. Polymers  vol. 8, (1) 10.3390/polym8010014


Baran D, Vezie MS, Gasparini N, Deledalle F, Yao J, Schroeder BC, Bronstein H, Ameri T, Kirchartz T, McCulloch I, Nelson J and Brabec CJ (2015). Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C  vol. 119, (34) 19668-19673. 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b05709

Schroeder BC, Kirkus M, Nielsen CB, Ashraf RS and McCulloch I (2015). Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics. Macromolecules  vol. 48, (16) 5557-5562. 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00941

Dimitrov SD, Wheeler S, Niedzialek D, Schroeder BC, Utzat H, Frost JM, Yao J, Gillett A, Tuladhar PS, McCulloch I, Nelson J and Durrant JR (2015). Polaron pair mediated triplet generation in polymer/fullerene blends. Nat Commun  vol. 6, 10.1038/ncomms7501

Nielsen CB, Ashraf RS, Treat ND, Schroeder BC, Donaghey JE, White AJP, Stingelin N and McCulloch I (2015). 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole-5,6-dicarboxylic imide--a versatile building block for additive- and annealing-free processing of organic solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 8%. Adv Mater  vol. 27, (5) 948-953. 10.1002/adma.201404858

Ashraf RS, Meager I, Nikolka M, Kirkus M, Planells M, Schroeder BC, Holliday S, Hurhangee M, Nielsen CB, Sirringhaus H and McCulloch I (2015). Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells. J Am Chem Soc  vol. 137, (3) 1314-1321. 10.1021/ja511984q

Rumer JW, Ashraf RS, Eisenmenger ND, Huang Z, Meager I, Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC, Chabinyc ML and McCulloch I (2015). Dual function additives: A small molecule crosslinker for enhanced efficiency and stability in organic solar cells. Advanced Energy Materials  vol. 5, (9) 10.1002/aenm.201401426

Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Westacott P, Smith J, Rossbauer S, Anthopoulos TD, Stingelin N and McCulloch I (2015). Effects of alkyl chain positioning on conjugated polymer microstructure and field-effect mobilities. Mrs Communications  vol. 5, (3) 435-440. 10.1557/mrc.2015.49


Meager I, Nikolka M, Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Planells M, Bronstein H, Rumer JW, James DI, Ashraf RS, Sadhanala A, Hayoz P, Flores JC, Sirringhaus H and McCulloch I (2014). Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene flanked isoindigo polymers for high performance ambipolar OFET applications. Advanced Functional Materials  vol. 24, (45) 7109-7115. 10.1002/adfm.201402307

Schroeder BC, Li Z, Brady MA, Faria GC, Ashraf RS, Takacs CJ, Cowart JS, Duong DT, Chiu KH, Tan C-H, Cabral JT, Salleo A, Chabinyc ML, Durrant JR and McCulloch I (2014). Enhancing fullerene-based solar cell lifetimes by addition of a fullerene dumbbell. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl  vol. 53, (47) 12870-12875. 10.1002/anie.201407310

Fei Z, Pattanasattayavong P, Han Y, Schroeder BC, Yan F, Kline RJ, Anthopoulos TD and Heeney M (2014). Influence of side-chain regiochemistry on the transistor performance of high-mobility, all-donor polymers. J Am Chem Soc  vol. 136, (43) 15154-15157. 10.1021/ja508798s

Planells M, Schroeder BC and McCulloch I (2014). Effect of chalcogen atom substitution on the optoelectronic properties in cyclopentadithiophene polymers. Macromolecules  vol. 47, (17) 5889-5894. 10.1021/ma5014308

Schroeder BC, Ashraf RS and Mcculloch I (2014). Thiophene-Based High-Performance Donor Polymers for Organic Solar Cells. Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies: Second Edition  10.1002/9783527656912.ch02

Rumer JW, Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Ashraf RS, Beatrup D, Bronstein H, Cryer SJ, Donaghey JE, Holliday S, Hurhangee M, James DI, Lim S, Meager I, Zhang W and McCulloch I (2014). Bis-lactam-based donor polymers for organic solar cells: Evolution by design. Thin Solid Films  vol. 560, 82-85. 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.089

Schroeder BC, Rossbauer S, Kline RJ, Biniek L, Watkins SE, Anthopoulos TD, McCulloch I and Nielsen CB (2014). Benzotrithiophene copolymers: Influence of molecular packing and energy levels on charge carrier mobility. Macromolecules  vol. 47, (9) 2883-2890. 10.1021/ma500163u

Soon YW, Shoaee S, Ashraf RS, Bronstein H, Schroeder BC, Zhang W, Fei Z, Heeney M, McCulloch I and Durrant JR (2014). Material crystallinity as a determinant of triplet dynamics and oxygen quenching in donor polymers for organic photovoltaic devices. Advanced Functional Materials  vol. 24, (10) 1474-1482. 10.1002/adfm.201302612

Dimitrov SD, Huang Z, Deledalle F, Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC, Ashraf RS, Shoaee S, McCulloch I and Durrant JR (2014). Towards optimisation of photocurrent from fullerene excitons in organic solar cells. Energy and Environmental Science  vol. 7, (3) 1037-1043. 10.1039/c3ee42607f

Marshall J, Schroeder BC, Bronstein H, Meager I, Rossbauer S, Yaacobi-Gross N, Buchaca-Domingo E, Anthopoulos TD, Stingelin N, Beavis P and Heeney M (2014). Benzocarborano[2,1- b:3,4- b ?]dithiophene containing conjugated polymers: Synthesis, characterization, and optoelectronic properties. Macromolecules  vol. 47, (1) 89-96. 10.1021/ma402273w

Combe CMS, Biniek L, Schroeder BC and McCulloch I (2014). Synthesis of [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene pendant and norbornene random co-polymers via ring opening metathesis. Journal of Materials Chemistry C  vol. 2, (3) 538-541. 10.1039/c3tc32058h


Meager I, Ashraf RS, Rossbauer S, Bronstein H, Donaghey JE, Marshall J, Schroeder BC, Heeney M, Anthopoulos TD and McCulloch I (2013). Alkyl chain extension as a route to novel thieno[3,2-b ]thiophene flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers for use in organic solar cells and field effect transistors. Macromolecules  vol. 46, (15) 5961-5967. 10.1021/ma401128s

Meager I, Ashraf RS, Mollinger S, Schroeder BC, Bronstein H, Beatrup D, Vezie MS, Kirchartz T, Salleo A, Nelson J and McCulloch I (2013). Photocurrent enhancement from diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer solar cells through alkyl-chain branching point manipulation. J Am Chem Soc  vol. 135, (31) 11537-11540. 10.1021/ja406934j

Meager I, Ashraf RS, Mollinger S, Schroeder BC, Bronstein H, Beatrup D, Vezie MS, Kirchartz T, Salleo A, Nelson J and McCulloch I (2013). Photocurrent Enhancement from Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymer Solar Cells through Alkyl-Chain Branching Point Manipulation. Journal of The American Chemical Society  vol. 135, (31) 11537-11540. 10.1021/ja405934j

Rumer JW, Dai SY, Levick M, Kim Y, Madec MB, Ashraf RS, Huang Z, Rossbauer S, Schroeder B, Biniek L, Watkins SE, Anthopoulos TD, Janssen RAJ, Durrant JR, Procter DJ and McCulloch I (2013). Dihydropyrroloindoledione-based copolymers for organic electronics. Journal of Materials Chemistry C  vol. 1, (15) 2711-2716. 10.1039/c3tc30184b

Ashraf RS, Schroeder BC, Bronstein HA, Huang Z, Thomas S, Kline RJ, Brabec CJ, Rannou P, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR and McCulloch I (2013). The influence of polymer purification on photovoltaic device performance of a series of indacenodithiophene donor polymers. Adv Mater  vol. 25, (14) 2029-2034. 10.1002/adma.201300027

Nielsen CB, Sohn E-H, Cho D-J, Schroeder BC, Smith J, Lee M, Anthopoulos TD, Song K and McCulloch I (2013). Improved field-effect transistor performance of a benzotrithiophene polymer through ketal cleavage in the solid state. Acs Appl Mater Interfaces  vol. 5, (5) 1806-1810. 10.1021/am303138q

Biniek L, Schroeder BC, Donaghey JE, Yaacobi-Gross N, Ashraf RS, Soon YW, Nielsen CB, Durrant JR, Anthopoulos TD and McCulloch I (2013). New fused bis-thienobenzothienothiophene copolymers and their use in organic solar cells and transistors. Macromolecules  vol. 46, (3) 727-735. 10.1021/ma302390z

Bakulin AA, Dimitrov SD, Rao A, Chow PCY, Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC, McCulloch I, Bakker HJ, Durrant JR and Friend RH (2013). Charge-Transfer State Dynamics Following Hole and Electron Transfer in Organic Photovoltaic Devices. J Phys Chem Lett  vol. 4, (1) 209-215. 10.1021/jz301883y


Dimitrov SD, Bakulin AA, Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC, Du J, Bronstein H, McCulloch I, Friend RH and Durrant JR (2012). On the energetic dependence of charge separation in low-band-gap polymer/fullerene blends. J Am Chem Soc  vol. 134, (44) 18189-18192. 10.1021/ja308177d

Biniek L, Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB and McCulloch I (2012). Recent advances in high mobility donor-acceptor semiconducting polymers. Journal of Materials Chemistry  vol. 22, (30) 14803-14813. 10.1039/c2jm31943h

Schroeder BC, Ashraf RS, Thomas S, White AJP, Biniek L, Nielsen CB, Zhang W, Huang Z, Tuladhar PS, Watkins SE, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR and McCulloch I (2012). Synthesis of novel thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) based low bandgap polymers for organic photovoltaics. Chem Commun (Camb)  vol. 48, (62) 7699-7701. 10.1039/c2cc33718e

Nielsen CB, Ashraf RS, Schroeder BC, D'Angelo P, Watkins SE, Song K, Anthopoulos TD and McCulloch I (2012). Random benzotrithiophene-based donor-acceptor copolymers for efficient organic photovoltaic devices. Chem Commun (Camb)  vol. 48, (47) 5832-5834. 10.1039/c2cc31934a

McCulloch I, Ashraf RS, Biniek L, Bronstein H, Combe C, Donaghey JE, James DI, Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC and Zhang W (2012). Design of semiconducting indacenodithiophene polymers for high performance transistors and solar cells. Acc Chem Res  vol. 45, (5) 714-722. 10.1021/ar200208g

Schroeder BC, Huang Z, Ashraf RS, Smith J, D'Angelo P, Watkins SE, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR and McCulloch I (2012). Silaindacenodithiophene-based low band gap polymers - The effect of fluorine substitution on device performances and film morphologies. Advanced Functional Materials  vol. 22, (8) 1663-1670. 10.1002/adfm.201102941

Chen Z, Lee MJ, Shahid Ashraf R, Gu Y, Albert-Seifried S, Meedom Nielsen M, Schroeder B, Anthopoulos TD, Heeney M, McCulloch I and Sirringhaus H (2012). High-performance ambipolar diketopyrrolopyrrole-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene copolymer field-effect transistors with balanced hole and electron mobilities. Adv Mater  vol. 24, (5) 647-652. 10.1002/adma.201102786


Donaghey JE, Ashraf RS, Kim Y, Huang ZG, Nielsen CB, Zhang W, Schroeder B, Grenier CRG, Brown CT, D'Angelo P, Smith J, Watkins S, Song K, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR, Williams CK and McCulloch I (2011). Pyrroloindacenodithiophene containing polymers for organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics. Journal of Materials Chemistry  vol. 21, (46) 18744-18752. 10.1039/c1jm13428k

Nielsen CB, Schroeder BC, Hadipour A, Rand BP, Watkins SE and McCulloch I (2011). A benzotrithiophene-based low band gap polymer for polymer solar cells with high open-circuit voltage. Journal of Materials Chemistry  vol. 21, (44) 17642-17645. 10.1039/c1jm13393d

Zhang X, Richter LJ, DeLongchamp DM, Kline RJ, Hammond MR, McCulloch I, Heeney M, Ashraf RS, Smith JN, Anthopoulos TD, Schroeder B, Geerts YH, Fischer DA and Toney MF (2011). Molecular packing of high-mobility diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole polymer semiconductors with branched alkyl side chains. J Am Chem Soc  vol. 133, (38) 15073-15084. 10.1021/ja204515s

Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Kim YJ, Smith J, Huang Z, Durrant J, Watkins SE, Song K, Anthopoulos TD and McCulloch I (2011). Benzotrithiophene Co-polymers with high charge carrier mobilities in field-effect transistors. Chemistry of Materials  vol. 23, (17) 4025-4031. 10.1021/cm2015884

Nielsen CB, Fraser JM, Schroeder BC, Du J, White AJP, Zhang W and McCulloch I (2011). Benzotrithiophene--a planar, electron-rich building block for organic semiconductors. Org Lett  vol. 13, (9) 2414-2417. 10.1021/ol200643z

Ashraf RS, Chen Z, Leem DS, Bronstein H, Zhang W, Schroeder B, Geerts Y, Smith J, Watkins S, Anthopoulos TD, Sirringhaus H, de Mello JC, Heeney M and McCulloch I (2011). Silaindacenodithiophene Semiconducting Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells and High-Mobility Ambipolar Transistors. Chemistry of Materials  vol. 23, (3) 768-770. 10.1021/cm1029744



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