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Materials Research Institute

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Dr Steffi Krause

Reader in Electroanalytical Systems

Department School of Engineering and Materials Science
 Engineering 223, Mile End
Telephone +44 (0)20 7882 3747

Research Interests

Dr Krause's research focuses on biosensor and gas sensor development and electrochemical imaging.

Disposable biosensors for the detection of enzyme activities based on the enzymatic degradation of thin polymer films have been developed. Film degradation in the presence of an enzyme is monitored using impedance and Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Inflammation and bacterial infection are frequently accompanied by increased levels of host and bacterial proteases. Current efforts are therefore directed at the development of polymers that are degraded specifically by different proteases.

A novel technique, Scanning Photo-induced Impedance Microscopy, which allows the use of impedance measurements for the imaging of film properties, has been developed. It can be used for characterising the local properties of a wide range of different materials. Links with cell biologists and materials scientists have been established to explore applications of this technique in medicine, materials development and protein research.

Achieving a high degree of selectivity is still a major challenge in the development of gas sensors. Our efforts are directed at the development of multifunctional devices by integrating carbon nanotubes into field-effect gas sensors.


KRAUSE SK, Wu F, Campos I and Zhang D (2017). Biological imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Royal Society, The  Proceedings of The Royal Society a: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  10.1098/rspa.2017.0130

Wu F, Zhang D, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2017). Copper contamination of self-assembled organic monolayer modified silicon surfaces following a ?click? reaction characterized with LAPS and SPIM. American Chemical Society  Langmuir  10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03831


Zhang DW, Wu F, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2016). Image detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS). Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 72, 41-45. 10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.017

Wang J, Campos I, Wu F, Zhu J, Sukhorukov GB, Palma M, Watkinson M and Krause S (2016). The effect of gold nanoparticles on the impedance of microcapsules visualized by scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 208, 39-46. 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.017


Wang J, Wu F, Watkinson M, Zhu J and Krause S (2015). click Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. Langmuir  vol. 31, (35) 9646-9654. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02069

Gibbs MJ, Biela A and Krause S (2015). ?-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor. Biosens Bioelectron  vol. 67, 540-545. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.036

Zhang H, Yilmaz P, Ansari JO, Khan FF, Binions R, Krause S and Dunn S (2015). Incorporation of Ag nanowires in CuWO<inf>4</inf> for improved visible light-induced photoanode performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry A  vol. 3, (18) 9638-9644. 10.1039/c4ta07213h

Wang J, Zhou Y, Watkinson M, Gautrot J and Krause S (2015). High-sensitivity light-addressable potentiometric sensors using silicon on sapphire functionalized with self-assembled organic monolayers. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 209, 230-236. 10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.071

Biela A, Watkinson M, Meier UC, Baker D, Giovannoni G, Becer CR and Krause S (2015). Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 68, 660-667. 10.1016/j.bios.2015.01.060


Dzaraini K, Norizan A, Krause S, Hunter C and Milanesi L (2013). Degradation behaviour of thin polymer films of poly (amide ester) hydrogel using quartz crystal microbalance. Advanced Materials Research  vol. 812, 38-45. 10.4028/


Zhang DW, Zhang FT, Cui YR, Deng QP, Krause S, Zhou YL and Zhang XX (2012). A label-free aptasensor for the sensitive and specific detection of cocaine using supramolecular aptamer fragments/target complex by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Talanta  vol. 92, 65-71. 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.01.049


Zheng XW, Cook JP, Watkinson M, Yang SF, Douglas I, Rawlinson A and Krause S (2011). Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease. Faraday Discuss  vol. 149, 37-47. 10.1039/c005364c


Chen L, Zhou Y, Jiang S, Kunze J, Schmuki P and Krause S (2010). High resolution LAPS and SPIM. Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 12, (6) 758-760. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.03.026


Kamarun D, Zheng XW, Milanesi L, Hunter CA and Krause S (2009). A peptide cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel for the detection of human neutrophil elastase. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 54, (22) 4985-4990. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.067

Stair JL, Watkinson M and Krause S (2009). Sensor materials for the detection of proteases. Biosens Bioelectron  vol. 24, (7) 2113-2118. 10.1016/j.bios.2008.11.002

Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Editorial: Selected papers from the second international conference on optical, optoelectronic and photonic materials and applications, 2007. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics  vol. 20, (SUPPL. 1) 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z

Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, 2007. J Mater Sci-Mater El  vol. 20, 1-2. 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z


Chen L, Zhou Y, Krause S, Munoz AG, Kunze J and Schmuki P (2008). Repair of thin thermally grown silicon dioxide by anodic oxidation. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 53, (8) 3395-3402. 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.065


Zhou Y, Jiang S, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (23) 8974-8978. 10.1021/ac071437t

Zhou Y, Chen L, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy using amorphous silicon photodiode structures. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (16) 6208-6214. 10.1021/ac070797d


Krause S, Moritz W, Talabani H, Xu M, Sabot A and Ensell G (2006). Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy - Resolution studies and polymer characterization. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 51, (8-9) 1423-1430. 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.119

KRAUSE SK, Fernandez-Sanchez C and McNeil CJ (2006). Sensors based on thin film degradation. Encyclopedia of Sensors  American Scientific Publishers 


Moritz W, Yoshinobu T, Finger F, Krause S, Martin-Fernandez M and Schoning MJ (2004). High resolution LAPS using amorphous silicon as the semiconductor material. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical  vol. 103, (1-2) 436-441. 10.1016/j.snb.2004.04.073


KRAUSE SK (2003). Impedance methods. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Volume 3, Instrumentation and Electroanalytical Chemistry  Wiley-Vch Verlag 


Sabot A and Krause S (2002). Simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance impedance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Investigation into the degradation of thin polymer films. Anal Chem  vol. 74, (14) 3304-3311. 10.1021/ac0200724

Krause S, Talabani H, Xu M, Moritz W and Griffiths J (2002). Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy - an impedance based imaging technique. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 47, (13-14) 2143-2148. 10.1016/S0013-4686(02)00088-9


Sumner C, Krause S, Sabot A, Turner K and McNeil CJ (2001). Biosensor based on enzyme-catalysed degradation of thin polymer films. Biosensors & Bioelectronics  vol. 16, (9-12) 709-714. 10.1016/S0956-5663(01)00210-X

Moritz W, Krause S, Roth U, Klimm D and Lippitz A (2001). Re-activation of an all solid state oxygen sensor. Anal Chim Acta  vol. 437, (2) 183-190. 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00993-X


Sumner C, Sabot A, Turner K and Krause S (2000). A transducer based on enzyme-induced degradation of thin polymer films monitored by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem  vol. 72, (21) 5225-5232. 10.1021/ac000411y

Moritz W, Gerhardt I, Roden D, Xu M and Krause S (2000). Photocurrent measurements for laterally resolved interface characterization. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry  vol. 367, (4) 329-333. 10.1007/s002160000409


Ho WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D and Rawson K (1999). Electrochemical sensor for measurement of urea and creatinine in serum based on ac impedance measurement of enzyme-catalyzed polymer transformation. Anal Chem  vol. 71, (10) 1940-1946. 10.1021/ac981367d


Moritz W, Krause S, Bartholomäus L, Gabusjan T, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1998). Silicon-Based Sensor for Flourine Gas. Acs Symposium Series  vol. 690, 119-129.


McNeil CJ, Athey D, Ball M, Ho WO, Krause S, Armstrong RD, Des Wright J and Rawson K (1995). Electrochemical Sensors Based on Impedance Measurement of Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymer Dissolution: Theory and Applications. Analytical Chemistry  vol. 67, (21) 3928-3935. 10.1021/ac00117a018

Moritz W, Krause S, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1995). Monitoring of HF and F2 using a field-effect sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 24, (1-3) 194-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(95)85041-4


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1994). Improved long-term stability for an LaF3 based oxygen sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 18, (1-3) 148-154. 10.1016/0925-4005(94)87074-8


Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1992). A low-temperature oxygen sensor based on the Si/LaF3/Pt capacitive structure. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 9, (3) 191-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(92)80215-J


Bobrov PV, Tarantov YA, Krause S and Moritz W (1991). Chemical sensitivity of an ISFET with Ta2O5 membrane in strong acid and alkaline solutions. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 3, (1) 75-81. 10.1016/0925-4005(91)85010-G



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